Keep your kids safe and secure in all types of water situations, such as boating and swimming, with our tips for choosing U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets.
By Kate Bayless
Life jackets can be bulky, uncomfortable, and less than fashionable. But there's one crucial fact to remember: Life jackets save lives. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), drowning is the second leading cause of death for kids age 1 to 14. In 2009, 3,358 people were injured and 736 died in boating incidents. Of those who drowned, 9 out of 10 were not wearing life jackets. Research indicates that life jackets (often used interchangeably with the term "personal flotation devices") are the safest and best devices approved by the U.S. Coast Guard to prevent drowning. We've gathered the age-appropriate guidelines you need to select the best life jackets -- based on type, style, and fit -- to keep your kids safe this summer.
Know the Rules and Requirements
Boating laws concerning the use of individual life jackets vary greatly from state to state. Some states require life jackets for anyone under the age of 6 or anyone under 14, depending on the boating situation. Other states require them for all persons on a boat, whether child or adult. Visit the National Association of State Boating Law Administrators to find the requirements for your state. Your state not listed? In December 2002, the U.S. Coast Guard passed an interim rule for states where no child life-jacket laws exist, requiring all children under the age of 13 to wear a life jacket on boats that are under way.
Match the Best Jacket to Your Activity
The U.S. Coast Guard classifies life jackets into five different types, but only Types I-III are approved for children to use. Select the jacket best suited for the type of activity and water conditions your child will encounter.
Type I - Offshore Life Jacket
Best for: extended survival in rough seas, open ocean, or remote water where quick rescue is unlikely
Advantages: designed to turn an unconscious person face up; lots of buoyancy
Disadvantages: bulky, not comfortable for extended wear
Type II - Near Shore Buoyant Vest
Best for: calm, inland water and most general boating activities where there is a good chance of a quick rescue
Advantages: many turn an unconscious person face up; less bulky than Type I
Disadvantages: will not turn all unconscious persons face up; not intended for extended support in rough seas
Type III - Flotation Aid
Best for: calm, inland waters only
Advantages: most comfortable and lightweight; easy to wear for extended periods of time
Disadvantages: most not designed to turn an unconscious person face up; not suited for rough waters or open seas
Choose the Best Type of Style
Modern life jackets, like those by Opa Cove, combine style and USCG-certified safety, but the most important decision in choosing a life jacket is the design underneath. Here are three different styles of life jackets.
Inherently buoyant: Made of floatable foam or neoprene, inherently buoyant life jackets are durable, need little maintenance, and require no action from the wearer to work.
Inflatable: Inflatable life jackets can automatically deploy upon submersion in water or be manually inflated. They are not approved for children under the age of 16 and not currently recommended for non-swimmers. Inflatable life jackets require extra maintenance, and are not appropriate for activities that involve frequent water entry.
Hybrid: Made with a combination of buoyant material and an inflatable chamber, hybrid life jackets are available in child sizes but require frequent maintenance checks. They are not suitable for all water activities, but because they are less bulky, they are ideal for extended wear and for those who are reluctant to wear a jacket.
Determine the Proper Fit
To meet the U.S. Coast Guard requirements for recreational boating, all life jackets must be U.S. Coast Guard-approved, the appropriate weight range for the child, and maintained and in good condition. Check individual state laws for age wear requirements. Be aware, though, that having a U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jacket isn't enough to guarantee that you have the best life jacket for your child. "Proper fit is imperative," says Bernice McArdle, Executive Director of the Personal Flotation Device Manufacturers Association. "Improper fit is the most common mistake parents make when buying a life jacket," McArdle says: "Parents will often purchase for their child a life jacket that's too big (and could easily slide off) on the assumption that the child 'will grow into it.' A life jacket won't provide adequate protection if it doesn't fit your child properly." Involving your child in the purchase process is also an important factor in getting them to want to wear their life jacket, as opposed to having to wear one.
Give It a "Fit" Test
Are the armholes too big? Is the neck opening too small? Use the U.S. Coast Guard's fit test to see if a life jacket is the right size for your child.
1. Check the manufacturer's label to ensure that the life jacket is intended for your child's size and weight.
2. Make sure the jacket is properly fastened and cinched to ensure a snug fit.
3. Have the child hold his arms straight up over his head.
4. Grasp the top of the arm openings and gently pull up.
5. See if the life jacket rides up over the child's chin or face and if there is excess room above the armholes. If so, the life jacket is too big for the child.
In March 2011, the Boat U.S. Foundation tested 30 different life jackets for comfort, performance, and maneuverability. Although their tests mainly focused on adult life jackets, their study made some key recommendations:
The more adjustments, the better. Multiple straps can be a pain, but they ensure that the jacket has a snug fit against your child's body.
Consider a crotch strap. Although this might seem uncomfortable, life jackets with a crotch strap provide better protection and are less likely to ride up as much.
Comfort does count. If the life jacket isn't comfortable, the child is more likely to resist wearing it. Try on and test out multiple life jackets until you find the right blend of fit, comfort, and buoyancy.
Practice in Calm Waters
Have your child wear and practice swimming with the life jacket so that he can see how it will feel and act in the water. Make sure the jacket fits correctly and adequately supports him. Always test the life jacket in a shallow and controlled environment like a public or private pool or, in calm water like a lake cove, under an adult's close supervision.
Teach your child how to relax her arms and legs. Falling into the water or getting knocked over by a wave can be a frightening experience for a child. It's a natural response to flail one's arms, but "arm movements cause the body to move up and down, and the victim unintentionally splashes water onto her own face," says Jim Reiser, aka "The Swim Professor," the founder of Swim Lessons University. "From a survival standpoint it's mainly about balance," Reiser counsels. "If the body can be balanced so that the mouth is above the water and the child can breathe comfortably, the most important objective has been accomplished."
Avoid Bringing Babies on Board
Although there are "infant life jackets," most have a large weight range (0 to 30 lbs.) for newborns up to 18 lbs., which make it unlikely that these jackets can provide a secure fit without overwhelming small babies. Currently, the U.S. Coast Guard does not advise taking infants onboard recreational boats. "Unless the parents are able to test their newborn out in a life jacket sized for infants, in a swimming pool, they will not know if that device will float their child with her head out of the water. You must be sure you know the life jacket you have works for your infant. Otherwise we recommend that the child not be exposed to any risk in a boat on the water," warns the Coast Guard website.
Remember the Most Important Thing
The majority of drownings occur in calm, inland waters. Most of those who drowned were within a few feet of safety and had easy access to a life jacket but were not wearing one. Take the time to select the best life jacket for your child's size and activity, and the water conditions, but don't forget the most important thing of all: Life jackets work only if you wear them.
Kate Bayless is a freelance writer and editor based in Southern California. You can follow her at www.katebayless.com or @katebayless. This article first appeared on Parents.com.